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Rochester, MN, United States

Wilcox R.A.,00 First Street SW | Wilcox R.A.,Mayo Medical School
Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite | Year: 2012

Improved understanding of the cellular and molecular basis of adaptive immunity has been realized over the past few decades, leading to the development of novel immunotherapeutic strategies capable of promoting host anti-tumor immunity. In order to achieve clinically meaningful results, further understanding of the mechanisms by which tumors suppress host immunity, and the development of therapeutic strategies which overcome tumor-associated immune suppression, will be necessary. Myeloid-derived cells with potent immunosuppressive properties are ubiquitous in human cancers. Improved mechanistic understanding of factors promoting their development, activation and mechanisms of immune suppression are being translated into novel therapeutic approaches, and will be summarized herein.

Ernste F.C.,00 First Street SW | Reed A.M.,Rochester College
Current Opinion in Rheumatology | Year: 2014

Purpose of review: Ongoing research continues to advance our understanding of the juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (JIIMs). We review the recent contributions from the published literature about the classification, pathogenesis, assessment, and treatment of JIIMs in basic and translational science and clinical research in 2013 through early 2014. Recent findings: Large registries, such as the Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance registry, are conducting trials to enhance our understanding of JIIMs. Ultraviolet radiation exposure 1 month prior to juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) may trigger the onset of disease. Myositis-specific autoantibodies define clinical phenotypes in JIIMs. MRI is useful in diagnosing JDM and may be used as a disease assessment tool. Type 1 interferon genes and proteins are increasing in use as disease assessment tools, but larger, prospective, validation studies are needed. Moderate-to-intense physical activity is effective in increasing the aerobic capacity of JDM patients in remission. New criteria developed by the Paediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organization for classifying inactive disease in JDM have practical applicability to the current clinical practice and clinical trials as even after 16.8 years of symptom onset, over half of JDM patients still have active disease. Summary: There has been significant progress in understanding the clinical characteristics, diagnostic workup, treatment, disease assessment, and prognosis of JIIM patients, but more prospective treatment trials are needed, especially in light of the paucity of the current biologic treatment agents available. © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Melduni R.M.,00 First Street SW | Koshino Y.,00 First Street SW | Shen W.-K.,Mayo Medical School
Clinics in Geriatric Medicine | Year: 2012

Perioperative arrhythmias are a common complication of surgery, with incidence ranging from 4% to 20% for noncardiothoracic procedures, depending on the type of surgery performed. The immediate postoperative period is a dynamic time and is associated with many conditions conducive to the development of postoperative arrhythmias. The presence of postoperative atrial fibrillation is associated with increased morbidity, ICU stay, length of hospitalization, and hospital costs. The associated burdens are expected to rise in the future, given that the population undergoing cardiac surgery is getting older and sicker. Thousands of patients undergo major surgery each year and a major complication of these procedures is the occurrence of perioperative arrhythmia. It is imperative for clinicians to be up-to-date on current management of these arrhythmias. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Holtan S.G.,00 First Street SW
Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar | Year: 2011

Failure of the immune system to recognize and eradicate tumor cells has deadly consequences. It is possible that the normal host response to the inflammatory environment created by many cancers - the body's natural attempt at wound repair and restoration of tissue integrity - is one of counter-regulation that paradoxically favors tumor growth. A physiologic condition where this situation is favorable (and even required) is that of normal pregnancy, where blastocyst implantation creates endometrial inflammation, and the maternal response in turn supports angiogenesis and tolerance required for placentation. Lack of such inflammation and resultant maternal immunologic engagement can lead to serious pregnancy complications including fetal loss, highlighting how important the fetomaternal immunologic dialogue is for survival. Here, we describe how the dynamics of fetomaternal tolerance can help disentangle complex cancer/host immunologic interactions and provide new avenues for immunologic reconstitution in patients with cancer.

Sohail M.R.,00 First Street SW | Sultan O.W.,Mayo Medical School | Raza S.S.,Mayo Medical School
Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy | Year: 2010

Cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) implantation rate has substantially risen in the foregoing decades. Unfortunately, this upsurge in CIED implantation rate has been accompanied by a disproportionate rise in the rate of CIED infections. Device infection is a major complication of CIED implantation, necessitating removal of an infected device followed by systemic antimicrobial therapy and reimplantation of a new system. In this article, we review the current epidemiology, risk factors, diagnostic strategy and contemporary management of CIED infection. In addition, we address the vexing question of how to best manage patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia, in the setting of an implanted device, but no overt clinical signs of CIED infection. Lastly, we discuss the preventive strategies to minimize risk of CIED infection. © 2010 Expert Reviews Ltd.

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