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Toronto, Canada

00 College St

Toronto, Canada
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Kamino B.A.,00 College St | Bender T.P.,00 College St | Bender T.P.,80 College
Dalton Transactions | Year: 2013

The synthesis of boron subphthalocyanines (BsubPc) from modified phthalonitriles is reported. The BsubPcs have intense red-shifted absorption compared to normal BsubPcs and readily tuneable optoelectronic properties including enhanced electrochemical stability and the presence of up to two reversible electrochemical reductions. This journal is © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Au S.H.,University of Toronto | Au S.H.,Donnelly College | Chamberlain M.D.,University of Toronto | Chamberlain M.D.,Donnelly College | And 8 more authors.
Lab on a Chip - Miniaturisation for Chemistry and Biology | Year: 2014

We introduce the microfluidic organoids for drug screening (MODS) platform, a digital microfluidic system that is capable of generating arrays of individually addressable, free-floating, three-dimensional hydrogel-based microtissues (or 'organoids'). Here, we focused on liver organoids, driven by the need for early-stage screening methods for hepatotoxicity that enable a "fail early, fail cheaply" strategy in drug discovery. We demonstrate that arrays of hepatic organoids can be formed from co-cultures of HepG2 and NIH-3T3 cells embedded in hydrogel matrices. The organoids exhibit fibroblast-dependent contractile behaviour, and their albumin secretion profiles and cytochrome P450 3A4 activities are better mimics of in vivo liver tissue than comparable two-dimensional cell culture systems. As proof of principle for screening, MODS was used to generate and analyze the effects of a dilution series of acetaminophen on apoptosis and necrosis. With further development, we propose that the MODS platform may be a cost-effective tool in a "fail early, fail cheaply" paradigm of drug development. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

Chamberlain M.D.,University of Toronto | Chamberlain M.D.,Donnelly College | Chamberlain M.D.,00 College St | West M.E.D.,University of Toronto | And 6 more authors.
Annals of Biomedical Engineering | Year: 2015

A critical aspect of creating vascularized tissues is the remodelling that occurs in vivo, driven in large part by the host response to the tissue construct. Rather than a simple inflammatory response, a beneficial tissue remodelling response results in the formation of vascularised tissue. The characteristics and dynamics of this response are slowly being elucidated, especially as they are modulated by the complex interaction between the biomaterial and cellular components of the tissue constructs and the host. This process has elements that are similar to both wound healing and tumour development, and its features are illustrated by reference to the bottom-up generation of a tissue using modular constructs. These modular constructs consist of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) embedded in endothelial cell (EC)-covered collagen gel rods that are a few hundred microns in size. Particular attention is paid to the role of hypoxia and macrophage recruitment, as well as the paracrine effects of the MSC and EC in this host response. © 2014, Biomedical Engineering Society.

Schroeder W.F.,University of Toronto | Schroeder W.F.,University of the Sea | Liu Y.,University of Toronto | Liu Y.,Dow Chemical Company | And 5 more authors.
Polymer | Year: 2011

In this article we use fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) to investigate how a classic coalescing aid, such as 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3- pentanediol monoisobutyrate (Texanol™) (TX), acts on the earliest stages of polymer diffusion as the latex film is still drying. In our approach, we temporarily arrest the drying process of a partially wet latex film by sealing it in an airtight chamber previously cooled to near the latex Tg. At these conditions, we are able to effectively stop the drying process and the polymer diffusion. FRET measurements at various locations on such a sample provide us information about the mechanism operating at the initial stages of polymer diffusion as the latex film is still drying. We complete our study with FRET measurements carried out at longer aging times on predried latex films. We analyze our diffusion data in terms of free volume theory and propose a mechanism that can account for the results obtained. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Roszell J.P.,University of Toronto | Labelle A.J.,University of Toronto | Brodersen P.,00 College St | Davis J.W.,University of Toronto | Haasz A.A.,University of Toronto
Journal of Nuclear Materials | Year: 2012

Deuterium retention during 10 eV and 500 eV/D + irradiations at 300 and 500 K was compared for 99.96% pure polycrystalline tungsten (PCW) foils and similar PCW foils contaminated with carbon and oxygen impurities. The contaminated foils showed reduced deuterium retention at 500 K compared with pure foil specimens while there was no difference for 300 K irradiations. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) of the unirradiated specimens showed regions of highly localised, non-homogeneous C and O contamination as well as a broader region of low level contamination of about 1-10% areal coverage. It is hypothesised that the C/O contamination creates a diffusion barrier in the PCW foil preventing deuterium from diffusing from the near surface into the bulk, thus reducing overall D retention at 500 K. This finding has implications for tritium retention in ITER; if carbon contamination even at low levels can impede T diffusion into the bulk it would mean reduced T loading in W plasma-facing components. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Kamino B.A.,00 College St | Bender T.P.,00 College St | Bender T.P.,80 College St
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2013

Optimization of the physical and electronic properties of organic semiconductors is a key step in improving the performance of organic light emitting diodes, organic photovoltaics, organic field effect transistors, and other electronic devices. Separate tuning of the physical and electronic properties of these organic semiconductors can be achieved by the hybridization of organo-silicon structures (silicones, siloxanes, silsesquioxanes) with organic semiconductors. Common chemical means to achieve this hybridization are summarized while a large range of literature examples are covered to demonstrate the range and flexibility of this synthetic strategy. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

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