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Cambridge, United Kingdom

Delley R.J.,Durham University | Bandyopadhyay S.,0 Tennis Court Road | Bandyopadhyay S.,Indian Institute of Science | Fox M.A.,Durham University | And 6 more authors.
Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry

The rate constants for exchange of hydrogen for deuterium at the α-CH2 positions of 8-(N,N-dimethylaminonaphthalen-1-yl)acetic acid tert-butyl ester 1 and naphthalen-1-ylacetic acid tert-butyl ester 2 have been determined in potassium deuteroxide solutions in 1:1 D2O:CD 3CN, in order to quantify the effect of the neighbouring peri-dimethylamino substituent on α-deprotonation. Intramolecular general base catalysis by the (weakly basic) neighbouring group was not detected. Second-order rate constants, kDO, for the deuterium exchange reactions of esters 1 and 2 have been determined as 1.35 × 10-4 M-1 s-1 and 3.95 × 10-3 M-1 s-1, respectively. The unexpected 29-fold decrease in the k DO value upon the introduction of a peri-dimethylamino group is attributed to an unfavourable steric and/or electronic substituent effect on intermolecular deprotonation by deuteroxide ion. From the experimental k DO values, carbon acid pKa values of 26.8 and 23.1 have been calculated for esters 1 and 2. Source

Mott H.R.,0 Tennis Court Road | Owen D.,0 Tennis Court Road
Biochemical Society Transactions

RLIP76 (Ral-interacting protein of 76 kDa) [also known as RalBP1 (Ral-binding protein 1)] is an effector for the Ral family small GTPases. RLIP76 has been implicated in a number of cell processes, including receptor-mediated endocytosis, cell migration, mitochondrial division and metabolite transport. RLIP76 has two recognizable domains in the centre of the protein sequence: a GAP (GTPase-activating protein) domain for the Rho family G-proteins and an RBD (Ral-binding domain). The remainder of RLIP76 has no discernable homology with other proteins. The RBD forms a simple coiled-coil of two α-helices, which interacts with RalB by binding to both of the nucleotide-sensitive 'switch' regions. Both of these RLIP76 helices are involved in the interaction with Ral, but the interhelix loop is left free. This is the location of one of the two ATP-binding sites that have been identified in RLIP76 and suggests that Ral interaction would not prevent ATP binding. The structure of the RhoGAP-RBD dyad shows that the two domains are fixed in their orientation by a relatively rigid linker. This domain arrangement allows the two domains to engage Rho family and Ral small G-proteins simultaneously at the membrane. This suggests that RLIP76 is a node for Rho and Ras family signalling. © 2014 Biochemical Society. Source

Bell L.,Cambridge Nanoscience Center | Seshia A.,Cambridge Nanoscience Center | Lando D.,0 Tennis Court Road | Laue E.,0 Tennis Court Road | And 3 more authors.
Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical

We describe a microfluidic device designed specifically for the reversible immobilisation of Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission Yeast) cells to facilitate live cell super-resolution microscopy. Photo-Activation Localisation Microscopy (PALM) is used to create detailed super-resolution images within living cells with a modal accuracy of >25 nm in the lateral dimensions. The novel flow design captures and holds cells in a well-defined array with minimal effect on the normal growth kinetics. Cells are held over several hours and can continue to grow and divide within the device during fluorescence imaging. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Frankl-Vilches C.,Max Planck Institute for Ornithology (Seewiesen) | Kuhl H.,Max Planck Institute for Ornithology (Seewiesen) | Kuhl H.,Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics | Werber M.,Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics | And 13 more authors.
Genome Biology

Background: While the song of all songbirds is controlled by the same neural circuit, the hormone dependence of singing behavior varies greatly between species. For this reason, songbirds are ideal organisms to study ultimate and proximate mechanisms of hormone-dependent behavior and neuronal plasticity. Results: We present the high quality assembly and annotation of a female 1.2-Gbp canary genome. Whole genome alignments between the canary and 13 genomes throughout the bird taxa show a much-conserved synteny, whereas at the single-base resolution there are considerable species differences. These differences impact small sequence motifs like transcription factor binding sites such as estrogen response elements and androgen response elements. To relate these species-specific response elements to the hormone-sensitivity of the canary singing behavior, we identify seasonal testosterone-sensitive transcriptomes of major song-related brain regions, HVC and RA, and find the seasonal gene networks related to neuronal differentiation only in the HVC. Testosterone-sensitive up-regulated gene networks of HVC of singing males concerned neuronal differentiation. Among the testosterone-regulated genes of canary HVC, 20% lack estrogen response elements and 4 to 8% lack androgen response elements in orthologous promoters in the zebra finch. Conclusions: The canary genome sequence and complementary expression analysis reveal intra-regional evolutionary changes in a multi-regional neural circuit controlling seasonal singing behavior and identify gene evolution related to the hormone-sensitivity of this seasonal singing behavior. Such genes that are testosterone- and estrogen-sensitive specifically in the canary and that are involved in rewiring of neurons might be crucial for seasonal re-differentiation of HVC underlying seasonal song patterning. © 2015 Frankl-Vilches et al. Source

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