Panka D.,0 Kordeckiego Street |
Piesik D.,0 Kordeckiego Street |
Jeske M.,0 Kordeckiego Street |
Baturo-Ciesniewska A.,0 Kordeckiego Street
Journal of Plant Physiology | Year: 2013
Grasses very often form symbiotic associations with Neotyphodium/. Epichloë endophytic fungi. These endophytes often allow the host grass to be protected from different pathogens. However, there is little known about the mechanisms of such endophyte influence on the host. Thus, the purpose of this research was to examine the effect of the N. lolii endophyte on the total production of phenolic compounds, VOCs emission and the resistance of three perennial ryegrass genotypes infected by pathogenic Fusarium poae. Analyses of total phenolics content were performed in control (not inoculated) and inoculated plants after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 days (DAI) and for VOCs after 0, 3, 6 and 12 DAI. The presence of endophytes significantly reduced the disease index in two of the three genotypes relative to that in E-. Plants infected by N. lolii exhibited higher production of phenolics relative to the E- plants. The highest amounts of phenolics were observed on the second and sixth DAI. Genotype Nl22 showed the strongest effect of the endophyte on the production of phenolics, which increased by over 61%. Both the endophyte infected and non-infected plants emitted most abundantly two GLVs ((Z)-3-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexen-1-yl acetate), three terpenes (linalool, (Z)-ocimene, β-caryophyllene) and three shikimic acid pathway derivatives (benzyl acetate, indole, and methyl salicylate). The endophyte presence and the intervals of VOCs detection were a highly significant source of variation for all emitted volatiles (. P<. 0.001). The genotype of the perennial ryegrass significantly affected only the emission of methyl salicylate (. P<. 0.05) and β-caryophyllene (. P<. 0.05). Most of the VOCs ((Z)-3-hexen-1-yl acetate, (Z)-3-hexenal, linalool and methyl salicylate) reached their highest levels of emission on the sixth DAI, when averaged over genotypes and endophyte status. The results highlight the role of Neotyphodium spp. in the mediation of quadro-trophic interactions among plants, symbiotic endophytes, invertebrate herbivores and plant pathogenic fungi. Our results also confirm the fact that symbiotic plants can activate a defense reaction faster than non-symbiotic plants after a pathogen attack. Thus, N. lolii can be involved in the defense of perennial ryegrass against pathogens and potentially could be central to the host plants' protection. © 2013 Elsevier GmbH.